By Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera
Legal ontologies have proved an important for representing, processing and retrieving criminal info, and may gather an expanding value within the rising framework of the Semantic net. regardless of the various study initiatives within the box, a collective mirrored image at the theoretical foundations of criminal ontology engineering was once nonetheless lacking. This e-book bridges the space, via exploring present methodologies and theoretical methods to felony ontologies. It gathers sixteen papers, every one of them providing concerns and recommendations for ontology engineering concerning a specific method of, or element of, the legislations: comparative legislation, case-based reasoning, multilingualism, complicated- platforms, sociolegal research, criminal thought, social ontology, ontology studying, computational ontology, provider ontology, cognitive technological know-how, rfile modelling, huge criminal databases, medical, linguistic and legal-technology views. The e-book will therefore curiosity researchers in criminal informatics, man made intelligence and legislations, criminal concept, criminal philosophy, criminal sociology, comparative legislations, in addition to builders of functions according to the clever administration of felony info, in either e-commerce and e-government (e-administration, e-justice, e-democracy).
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Additional resources for Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Theories, Domains, Methodologies
A definitional approach to legal concepts appears even more unable to fully capture the legal meanings, if we include among the relevant inferential links those emerging from legal practice, such as non-verbalised attitudes of legal reasoners. – the preconditions for applying a concept make the concept dependent upon the reasons justifying its application, while effects deriving from the application of the concept indicate what conclusions the concept is a reason for. Such reasons can be supported by rationales, and they can be attacked by contrary reasons (reasons why the concept should not be applied or why we should not, given certain situations, derive its conclusions).
In this section we shall consider how these dependencies impact on legal ontologies and how and within what limits we can save legal ontologies from this challenge. 1 The Mutual Dependence of Legal Concepts on Legal Norms Legal concepts are dependant on legal norms since they may be expressly defined by legal norms, or since they may be implicitly defined by them. Let us firstly consider explicit definitions. , ascribing a particular meaning to a term. Consider for example the following definition, contained in the EU data protection directive (Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council): (a) “personal data” shall mean any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (“data subject”); an identifiable person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural or social identity; Here is the definition which can be found instead in the Italian legislation (art.
In this context, we should be able to answer these two questions: • Are the conceptual structures of ontologies and doctrinal legal classifications equivalent with regard to their topological structure? • Are the conceptual structures of ontologies and doctrinal legal classifications equivalent with regard to the semantic relations expressed by the links between their nodes? With regard to the analysis of topological structure a methodological precision is required). 10 The definition of what counts as an explicit link is controversial, but here it will be assumed that two ways exist for expressing it: either textually or graphically.