By R. H. Baayen

A simple advent to the statistical research of language info, designed for college kids with a non-mathematical background.

summary: an easy creation to the statistical research of language information, designed for college students with a non-mathematical historical past

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Extra resources for Analyzing Linguistic Data : a Practical Introduction to Statistics using R

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The user has control over what character should separate the input strings. By default, the original arguments are separated by a space, > paste("a", "b", "c") [1] "a b c" but we can remove the space by setting the separating character to the empty string: > paste("a", "b", "c", sep = "") When paste() is supplied with vectors of strings, it will glue the elements of these vectors together pairwise: > paste(seq(0, 100, 10), rep("%", 11), sep = "") [1] "0%" "10%" "20%" "30%" "40%" "50%" [7] "60%" "70%" "80%" "90%" "100%" This vector provides sensible labels for the horizontal axis of our plot.

4. Extract the vector of publication dates from meta. Sort this vector. Consult the help page for sort() and sort the vector in reverse numerical order. Also sort the row names of meta. 5. Extract from meta all rows with texts that were published before 1980. 6. Calculate the mean publication date for all texts. The arithmetic mean is defined as the sum of the observations in a vector divided by the number of elements in the vector. The length of a vector is provided by the function length(). Recalculate the mean year of publication by means of the functions sum() and length().

Another difference is that the histogram is scaled on the vertical axis in such a way that the total area of the bars is equal to 1. This allows us to see that the words of length 5 and 6 jointly already account for more than 40% of the data. This histogram was obtained with the truehist() function in the MASS package. Packages are collections of functions, often written to facilitate a particular kind of statistical analysis. There are hundreds of packages, and every year more packages become available.

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