"Knowing your epidemic" is vital for everybody all for the reaction to HIV. greatly illustrated with graphs and charts, this biennial record offers concise yet complete summaries of significant matters within the worldwide AIDS reaction. Annexes supply HIV estimates and knowledge 2001 and 2007, and in addition kingdom growth symptoms.

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The latter trend is especially evident in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Main modes of HIV transmission The main mode of HIV transmission in the Caribbean is unprotected heterosexual intercourse, paid or otherwise. However, sex between men, although generally denied by society, is also a significant factor in several national epidemics. 11 | Not all countries in this region apply the same definition of “injecting drug users” or of ”men who have sex with men”. As a result, prevalence data such as these are not necessarily comparable between different countries.

30 2 0 0 8 R E P O RT O N T H E G L O BA L A I D S E P I D E M I C The most recent international epidemiological data contain some good news. In some countries in Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, the annual number of new HIV infections is falling. The estimated rate of AIDS deaths has also declined, in part as a result of success in expanding access to antiretroviral drugs in S TAT U S O F T H E G L O BA L H I V E P I D E M I C resource-limited settings. Yet these favourable trends are not uniformly evident, either within or between regions, underscoring the need for more comprehensive progress in implementing effective policies and programmes.

In 2007, an estimated 270 000 [250 000–290 000] HIV-infected children younger than 15 years died because of AIDS—more than 90% of them in sub-Saharan Africa. In the 7 The role of child sexual abuse as a source of HIV infection in children is poorly documented, but this mode of transmission is of particular concern in countries where both HIV and child sexual abuse are major public health problems. 6 | 2 0 0 8 R E P O RT O N T H E G L O BA L A I D S E P I D E M I C New HIV infections among children, 1990–2007 600 000 CHAPTER 2 500 000 400 000 300 000 200 000 100 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 This bar indicates the range around the estimate most heavily-affected countries, such as Botswana and Zimbabwe, HIV is the underlying reason for more than one third of all deaths among children under the age of five (Mason, 2006).

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